jordanredinger chapter 13


                        CHAPTER 13

Chapter 13 discusses the importance of managing brands over time. The marketing world is constantly changing each and every day and so does it’s consumers.  Because of this evolving challenge brands must learn to change and grow with it, therefore making brand management a long -term process. The chapter discusses how to reinforce the brand by considering two important questions; what products does the brand represent, what benefits does it supply, and what needs does it satisfy?  The example the book gave involved Nutri-grain expanding from cereal to granola bars building the reputation of “makers of healthy breakfast and snack food.”  The second question to ask when reinforcing a brand is, “How does the brand make those products superior?  What strong, favorable and unique brand associations exist in the minds of consumers?  For example, Black and Decker is now seen as offering “innovative designs” in its small appliance products.  Consistency is also another, if not the most important consideration, of market support when reinforcing a brand.  The chapter makes it clear that it does not mean that the brand should be so consistent that it shouldn’t change a single thing.  In my consumer behavior class last semester, we discussed the term, “just-noticeable difference.”  This is when a brand changes a tiny detail in their logo/brand individually until they work up their ideal logo/brand.  This is important to do because many consumers do not like change, if they have been buying the same product for ten years or more they want to continue buying that same product.  The chapter also discussed revitalizing a brand, which includes two approaches; 1.) Expand the depth or width of brand awareness by improving brand recall and recognition by consumers during the purchasing process, 2.) Improve the strength, favorability, and uniqueness of brand associations making up the brand image. Being that managing a brand is a long-term effort, the chapter discusses the topic of retiring brands, because the marketing world is constantly changing, there are some brands out there that are just not worth the time and effort to keep alive.  There are a few options to deal with this matter that involve, reducing the number of product types; this can reduce the cost of supporting the brand. Another more dramatic option to deal with a fading brand is to consolidate them into a stronger brand.  Proctor and Gamble has done a great job consolidating fading brands into strong brands.  A more final and permanent solution may consist of discontinuing the product all together, there are so many products that fail in the market due to the changing market environment.

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Redinger Chapter 12


This chapter discussed introducing and naming new products and brand extensions.  A brand extension is when a firm uses an established brand name/parent brand to introduce a new product, this can also be called a sub-brand.  Brand extensions have two different categories, line extension and category extension.  A line extension usually involves a different flavor, ingredient, or a different use for the brand.  Category extensions are when a parent brand is used to enter a different market category.  This chapter explained that line extensions are typically used for new products. There are many advantages and disadvantages of brand extensions.  A few advantages of brand extensions are that they can improve the parent brand image, reduce risk perceived by customers, increase the probability of gaining distribution and trial, and avoid costs of developing a new brand.  This chapter also discusses a few disadvantages of brand extensions including; the brand may confuse the consumers, may fail and potentially hurt the parent brand, or it may encounter some resistance to sell by retailers.  I believe that the advantages of brand extensions will defiantly out-weigh the disadvantages if the new product is perfect for the right target market.  Building a new brand extension can help the parent brand with awareness and can provide feedback from the consumers; it may also bring in new consumers to the brand.  Chapter 12 also discussed how consumers might evaluate a brand extension.  Brand extensions need to be considered with managerial judgment and lots of consumer research.  This chapter named a few basic consumptions about brand extensions that include; consumers have some awareness of the brand and have positive associations about the parent brand, the parent brand will be in a memory at least some of these positive associations will be because of the brand extensions.  It also assumes that, negative associations are not because of the parent brand, nor are they created by the brand extension.  There have been very many successful category extensions, Hershey chocolate milk, JELL-O pudding pops, visa travelers’ checks and Colgate toothbrushes. On the other side, there have been some very unsuccessful category extensions that include BIC perfumes, Kleenex diapers and Domino’s fruit flavored gum.  I think that the reason these category extensions did not succeed is because they did not enter into the right market.  For example, why did Dominos, who is infamously known for their pizza and breadsticks, decide it was a good idea to sell fruit flavored chewing gum?  Another weird one was, BIC (who is well-known for their ink pen production) deciding to enter the fragrance department.  I would like to smell that perfume, I wonder if it smells like an ink pen?  Over all, I really liked reading this chapter; it refreshed me on a few topics that I haven’t learned since my beginning marketing courses.

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Jordan Redinger-Chapter 11


                    CHAPTER 11


Chapter 11 was all about designing and implementing branding strategies.  An excellent branding strategy is important when managing brand equity.  A brand strategy is defined as an element, which identifies which brand elements a firm chooses to apply across the various products it sells.  There are two very important tools when developing a branding strategy, the brand-product matrix and the brand hierarchy.  The brand-product matrix goes into great detail about the representation of the different brands and products a firm can offer.  This tool can help a firm decide if they want to enter a new product or brand into the market or develop a brand extension.  In my marketing classes we talk a lot about brand-product matrix.  You can organize a brand strategy by its width and depth.  We discussed how the firm could bring in a variety of brands to attract the right target market.  This will really affect me when I find a job after graduation; marketing greatly deals with brands and products and how to sell them to the consumer.  This chapter also discussed how to design a brand strategy.  One design strategy is to create a sub-brand.  A sub-brand is when a current firm’s brand is combined with an individual brand.  Each sub-brand is promoted by its specific attributes to highlight the benefits and best satisfy the target market. I can see sub-brands whenever I walk down an aisle at the grocery store.  Since I am a marketing major, some of my courses have briefly touched on each of the topics in this chapter.  After reviewing this chapter, I felt like everything I have learned in my other courses was linking with this class.  One topic that I wasn’t familiar with was the adjustments to the marketing program, the corporate image campaigns and brand line campaigns.  I am not sure if I am just new to this topic or if I needed to be refreshed on certain aspects of this topic.  I felt like the corporate image campaigns were all about the company and less about what the consumer was looking for in a product, it just seemed like a big waste of time. Over all, I really enjoyed reading this chapter.

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Chapter 19

CHAPTER 18: Out-of-Home Media

            This chapter explains the variety of out of home media advertising that exists.  Out-of-home advertisements reach the consumers strictly outside of the home while they’re traveling, shopping, waiting, or heading out for a night on the town.  One type of out-of-home advertisements, which includes billboards, is called outdoor advertising.  Billboards are signs along the highway that are covered with an advertisement printed on big sheets of paper.  They are used to reach consumers traveling in their vehicles.  Other outdoor signs include stores posting signs outside their establishment about sales or specials.  Outdoor signs are becoming irrelevant since stores are starting to place most of their advertisements in the store.  Transit advertising is also considered an out of home advertisement.  This type of advertising uses both the interior and exterior part of subway cars, trains, taxis, and inside airline terminals.  Because consumers are always on the move, in some way or form the advertisement is going to be seen at least once.  Digital out of home media can easily be seen on the streets of Time Square in New York.  This type of advertisement is constantly moving and changing in forms such as videos or kiosks.  There are over 100 types of out-of-home media and there are many more constantly being developed. 

            One topic that I really enjoyed reading about was how outdoor advertising is purchased.  “Showings” were once the name for these purchases; billboards have now grown into using gross rating points (GRP).  Billboards are purchased on their location and these locations are called market zones.  Once a year, the average daily circulation of traffic is measured for each market zone, that information is used to determine how many billboards can be in one zone.  The standard buy is 100 GRP for a four-week period, which is intended to reach 90 percent of the local adult period, where they would see the advertisement at least once a day.  Through out my advertising and marketing classes I have learned a lot of transit advertising.  Just living in the small town of Hays, Kansas I see this type of advertising everyday.  On outside benches, on the gas station pumps, and semi trucks just passing through.  These advertisements can be very effective because the consumer is most likely going to see it more than once a day.  Transit advertising is very affordable and it does not have a limited number of exposures.  It can also have multiple disadvantages because it is easily hidden by other cluttered advertisements.   I know what I don’t tend to pay attention to most transit advertising because I see them every day and become unaware of them.  In the city, advertisements are easily defaced and vandalized which can cause them to become unrecognizable, therefore consumers would not be able to see what the advertisement said. 

            Chapter 19 was full of very interesting material and I enjoyed reading about all different types of out-of-home advertisements.  I hope that I become more aware of all the types of advertisements around as I hurry about my busy days. 


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Know Your Foundation PaperKnow Your FHSU Foundation

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Google Marketing

What company rents 200 goats to help manage weeds and brush at their headquarters? Google Incorporated. The billion-dollar company started by two college grads, has many unique qualities that have dated back to 1996 when Larry Page and Sergey Brin first began collaborating. They developed a search engine called BackRub. BackRub operated under Stanford servers for a little over a year. Page and Brin brought BackRub to the public web then changed the name to from BackRub to Google. The site was up and running for a few months when they received a check for $100,000 to help jumpstart their company. Google then moved in a garage, and set up an office in California. The two file for incorporation in California in 1998, and eventually open a bank account under the name of Google Inc. In only September, they hire Craig Silverstein. By December, PC Magazine recognizes Google as the search engine of choice in the Top 100 Web Sites for 1998. At this point, Google is up and rolling. In 2000, Google launches in eleven different languages. A few short months later Google debuts their first ever advertising platform.
They simply used sales reps to sell ads, and they were sold at a cost-per-impression (CPM) basis. “Instead of using banner ads, the dominant ad format of the time, Google decided to sell only unobtrusive text ads” (Karp). At this time, Google only had 350 clients. Then, they developed a new advertising platform called AdWords. They developed this marketing platform on the basis of the 3 R’s: Reach, Relevance, and Return on investment. Google did not use standard banner advertisements because they did not want to be intrusive to their customers. So, they make ads appear very similar to what the search results find, but are kept separate from search results. Not only do ads look like the search results, they are similar to the content of the search results. “We don’t allow ads to be displayed on our results pages unless they are relevant where they are shown. And we firmly believe that ads can provide useful information if, and only if, they are relevant to what you wish to find” (Google). For example, if someone searches “Universities in Kansas” then the advertisements such as, “Fort Hays State University” or “University of Kansas” may appear on Google’s sidebar as an advertisement. Google separated ads from search results because they feel it is unobtrusive if it done this way. Google’s first priority according to “Ten things we know to be true” is to focus on the user and all else will follow. “Since the beginning, we’ve focused on providing the best user experience possible.Whether we’re designing a new Internet browser or a new tweak to the look of the homepage, we take great care to ensure that they will ultimately serve you. Placement in search results is never sold to anyone, and advertising is not only clearly marked as such, it offers relevant content and is not distracting” (Google).
In 2001, Google introduced an alternative to monetizing AdWords called cost-per-click (CPC). Another company, Overture, had already had this CPC model and was proving successful. Google’s revenue was on pace to hit $85 million, but ended up being out-paced by Overture, which earned $288 using CPC. Overture not only used CPC, but they incorporated an auction model, where advertisers bid on how much they would pay per click. For example, if Wal-Mart bid $1.00 and Dillon’s big $.50, then the Wal-Mart advertisement would be shown before the Dillon’s, in Overtures CPC model. Google advertisers no longer had to pay for their advertisements if they were shown on Google’s homepage, only if the ad was clicked on. Google, however, realized a flaw in Overture’s model. Advertisers could simply increase their bids in order to be at the top of the ranking with an irrelevant ad. This went against Google’s code that consumers come first. If the bid was high, then the ad could be irrelevant. If the ad was irrelevant then the user would not click on it, and no one would make a profit. Therefore, a short year later Google introduced an updated AdWord model. This model debuted click-through rate as a measure of the advertisement relevance. This relevance then would be put into Google’s very own ranking algorithm, known as PageRank. For example, if an ad with a lower bid per click got clicked more often, it would be ranked higher than an ad with a higher bid and lower click rate.”Google’s decision to factor click through into an advertiser’s ranking forced an economy of relevance and profit into the pay-per-click model” (Battelle). Google also abandoned it’s the CPM model, and incorporated the CPC model.
Another advertising platform that Google offers is AdSense. AdSense is a program that offers many benefits to content publishers or websites. Google offers this option to websites that generate a certain amount of traffic. AdSense allows sites to display advertisements from Google’s database. This type of AdSense is called AdSense for Content. Visitors of the publishers website see ads relating to their personal interest; the publisher is then paid on either a CPM or a CPC basis. If the visitor clicks the ad, Google and the publisher earn revenue if it is a CPC advertisement. The second type of AdSense is AdSense for Search. This type of AdSense allows publishers of websites to place a Google search box on the website. Publishers earn revenue when a user clicks on an ad that appears of the search results page. However, publishers do not earn revenue just from the display of an ad on the search results page. Publishers and advertisers alike are also able to track their advertising and business progress through Google Analytics– which was introduced in 2005.
Businesses are able to control all of their own budget, bidding, statistics, and analysis online through Google Analytics.It allows advertisers to change key words of their advertisements in order to make them more appealing to their audience, in hopes to bring more interest to their website and product or service. It provides access to track progress and relevance of their advertisements. Google Analytics also gives publishers and advertisers fresh insights into how visitors are using their site, how much time visitors are visiting their site, and how to keep them coming back (Google). Businesses who use AdSense can also track progress through Google Analytics. Google Advertising has proven successful to many companies; two particular businesses have proven that Google can lead them to Advertising and business success.
Carolina Rustica is a company in North Carolina. They sell handmade household items from across the world.
Owner Richard Sexton, has used Google marketing for almost seven years. He opened his business in his garage, and wasn’t making enough money by word of mouth. He tried using newspaper ads to advertise his business, but his small town of 8,000 people could not support this type of business. He turned to the Internet for advice on how to advertise, and this is when his Google became is marketing plan. “Carolina Rustica uses Google AdWords, Analytics, Checkout, and Base to increase its conversion rate by 20% and overall sales by 50%” (Google).
Another classic example of a business that has greatly benefited and capitalized using various Googling marketing efforts is First Crush Restaurant. First Crush is a restaurant that caters to wine lovers in southern California. They have a large selection of wine, along with a restaurant and incredible wait staff. Owner, Sharam Bijan stated, “There are so many restaurants in San Francisco. I want to my business to cater to people who have an appreciation for wine, or those who love trendy restaurants. We are so far from the typical burger joint or taco stand.” Google AdWords helped them do this. A few words that he and Google had chosen to use as his chosen key search words are: trendy, wine, classy, San Francisco, restaurant, eatery, and cuisine. These words along with his Google advertisements have led to a tremendous increase to First Crush’s traffic site. The site has increased its traffic by 400% since using Google AdWords. “The people at Google help you find optimize keywords so it’s the most effective. It’s proved to really grab our target audience,” said Bijan.
To predict Google’s future, we must look back at the history. Google has innovated two major parts in their marketing success: PageRank and relevance of per-per-click model. “What’s notable is that Google didn’t invent search or auction-based pay-per-click advertising– their innovation was perfecting it” (GUY). Perhaps Google will invent the next leap in advertising, or perhaps they are already perfecting someone else’s mistake. Another point that bloggers are making is competing with Facebook. People trust their friends over random websites; with that said, Internet users are turning to Facebook for answers to questions or opinions of products, and then turning to Google for price input.Google may have to step-up their game as far as Google plus.

Karp, Scott. “Publishing 2.0.” Google AdWords: A Brief History Of Online Advertising Innovation. N.p., 27 2008. Web.Web. 7 Dec. 2012. <;.

Major Search Engine Statistics and Market Share. (2008). Search engine statistics – Google,Yahoo, MSN, Ask Jeeves, etc. Retrieved from

Google AdSense. (2010). Maximize revenue from your online content. Retrieved fromhttps://www utm_term%3Dgoogle%2Badsense&

Google AdWords. (2010). Advertise your business on Google. Retrieved from

C., Casey. (2010) Google Inc: How did Google originate? Retrieved from, John.(1 Dec 2012). The next wave of digital marketing trends.

“Google AdWords Success Story: Carolina Rustica”. 3 December 2012. < >.

“Google AdWords Success Story: First Crush Restaurant”. 3 December 2012. < >.

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